Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate for life-threatening bleeds or emergent surgery: A retrospective evaluation

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Purpose:Previous trials investigating usage of four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) excluded patients with various thrombotic risk factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of 4F-PCC in a real-world setting based on an institutional protocol that does not have strict exclusion criteria.Methods:This was a retrospective study of adult patients who received 4F-PCC. The primary outcome was a confirmed thromboembolism within 14 days after 4F-PCC administration. Secondary outcomes included international normalized ratio (INR) correction to <1.5 at first draw and incidence of INR rebound for patients undergoing reversal of warfarin and hemostatic effectiveness for patients experiencing a bleed.Results:Ninety-three patients received 4F-PCC. Sixty-three (67.7%) were reversed for bleeding and 30 (32.3%) for surgery. Eleven patients (11.8%) developed a thromboembolism within 14 days. The median (interquartile range) time to event was 5 (2-7) days. Significant risk factors were heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (P= .01) and major surgery within 14 days (P= .02), as well as the presence of >6 thrombotic risk factors (P= .01). For patients post-warfarin reversal, 45/63 (71.4%) achieved INR correction at first draw, 55/63 (87.3%) achieved INR correction within 24 hours, and 14/55 (25.5%) experienced INR rebound. Of these 14 patients, 8 (57.1%) did not receive concomitant vitamin K.Conclusions:4F-PCC was associated with a notable thromboembolic risk. All patient-specific risk factors should be considered prior to administration. 4F-PCC remains a useful agent for warfarin reversal. Lack of concomitant vitamin K may contribute to INR rebound.

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