Maternal inflammatory bowel disease has short and long-term effects on the health of their offspring: A multicenter study in Israel

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Background: There are concerns about the effect of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) on fertility, pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes, but no long-term data on the health of offspring born to IBD mothers. The aims were to assess the short- and long-term effects of maternal IBD on the morbidity and development of their offspring.Methods: Female IBD patients and controls completed questionnaires on their pregnancy outcome, and their offspring's short- and long-term health and development.Results: IBD and control mothers (159 and 175, respectively) were recruited. Medical data of 412 IBD and 417 control offspring were recorded. IBD mothers had significantly more singleton pregnancies, their offspring's birth weight was significantly lower, and they breastfed significantly less compared to controls (P = 0.028, 0.007, and < 0.0001, respectively). There were significantly more congenital anomalies (mainly limb deformities) among the IBD offspring (P < 0.035). Offspring born post-maternal IBD diagnosis, compared to pre-diagnosis, tended to have more neurodevelopmental problems (e.g., gross motor delay, P = 0.03). IBD was significantly more prevalent in the offspring of IBD mothers, while allergies and atopic dermatitis were more frequent in offspring of control mothers. More offspring of IBD mothers taking medications during pregnancy were born preterm and had lower birth weights compared to offspring of IBD mothers not taking medications during pregnancy. Children of mothers taking steroids had the lowest birth weights, compared to those of IBD mothers taking 5ASAs or immunomodulators.Conclusions: Maternal IBD affects pregnancy and the offspring's immediate and long-term morbidity, specifically, congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental problems.

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