Immunohistochemistry in the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Viral Infections- Part II: Cutaneous Viral Infections by Parvoviruses, Poxviruses, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, Retroviruses and Filoviruses


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Abstract

Background:Cutaneous viral infections are increasing in recent years, particularly in immunocompromised patients.Objective:Immunohistochemistry (IHC) provides a rapid and helpful tool that can be applied to confirm the diagnosis of specific viral infections that may be difficult to diagnose with certainty using routine microscopy alone.Methods:Several immunostains that are useful in histopathology have been reviewed and tested in cutaneous samples of viral infections. Emphasis is placed on new stains and novel uses of existing stains.Results:This article is an up-to-date overview of the potential uses of IHC in the histopathologic diagnosis of cutaneous viral infections by parvoviruses, polyomaviruses, poxviruses, paramyxoviridae, picornaviridae, retroviruses, and filoviruses.Limitations:Specific monoclonal antibodies are commercially available only for some members of these virus families.Conclusions:IHC may assist dermatopathologists to appropriately diagnose viral infections by parvoviruses, polyomaviruses, poxviruses, paramyxoviridae, picornaviridae, retroviruses, and filoviruses.

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