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A randomized, controlled study was performed in patients with high-risk, untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix to evaluate the adjunctive use of viral oncolysate (VO) prepared from the SW756 cell line. Seventy-five patients were stratified by tumor volume and randomized to receive radiation therapy (RT) alone or RT plus intradermal immunization with VO. Fifty-one (68%) patients relapsed with a median survival (MS) of 29.1 months and a median progression-free interval (MPFI) of 18.0 months. No differences in MS or median PFI were observed by treatment arm or site of relapse, although a trend toward improved MS and median PFI in patients with small-volume primary lesions was suggested. Serum surface-binding antibody activity (≥1: 8) to the SW756 cell line was detected in 14 of 41 unselected patients prior to therapy. Virus hemagglutination inhibitory activity (≥l:8) was detected in 37 of 41 patients before treatment. Four-fold increases in titer were observed to the SW756 cell line in 83% and to influenza in 74% of patients tested after immunization. Preirradiation measurements of phytohemagglutinin-induced blastogenesis by the relative proliferation index (RPI) method in 39 patients revealed RPI values < 0.58 in nine patients, eight of whom relapsed. At 3–6 months after the initiation of irradiation, 32 of 39 patients had values less than 0.58. Patients in the RT group with values less than 0.58 had significantly more relapses than those who received RT plus VO.