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In 32 patients with stage 1 or 2 cervical cancer, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images were compared with corresponding linear measurements made on fresh histopathology specimens. Their clinical tumor diameters recorded as a part of Federation of International Gynecologists and Obstetricians (FIGO) staging were also correlated with the MRI-derived tumor volumes. The locations of neoplastic lesions within the cervix and uterus were identified accurately by MRI as verified in subsequent histopathology examinations. The examination under anesthesia (EUA) diameter (tumor size) was not related to the MRI-derived tumor diameter. Pathologic tumor diameter correlated well with the corresponding diameter in T2-weighted MRI. Tumor volume as measured by MRI was an accurate representation of the local extent of the disease and can be used as an objective measure of cervical cancer at the primary site. Substituting MRI-derived volume in place of clinical tumor diameter in the FIGO staging system will help refine its prognostic significance in patients with both operable and nonoperable cervical cancer.