This review describes the pathology, prognosis, current treatment options, and future directions for the management of patients with triple-negative breast cancer. “Triple-negative” tumors lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, and HER2. The subtype comprises some 15% of all breast cancers, with tumors of a typically larger size and higher grade. Clinically, triple-negative breast cancer has a relatively high rate of recurrence and distant metastasis, and poor overall survival. The standard of care is chemotherapy, although recent research suggests a sound rationale for the use of targeted agents with antitumor and/or antiangiogenic activity such as receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.