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First-line surgical options for early-stage breast cancer include breast-conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy. We analyzed factors that influence the receipt of mastectomy and resultant trends over time.We analyzed the rates of mastectomy and BCS for 1634 women who underwent upfront surgical treatment for AJCC stage 0, I, or II breast cancer between 1995 and 2008 using data from the University of Louisville James Graham Brown Cancer Center Tumor Registry. We examined the trend of treatment over time and assessed the probability of receiving mastectomy using multivariate logistic regression.Overall, 65.9% of women received BCS, and 34.1% received mastectomy over a 14-year period (annual BCS rate range, 38.6% to 77.7%). The mastectomy rate substantially decreased from 43.5% in 1995 to 22.5% in 2004 (P=0.0007) but then increased to 51.7% in 2008 (P<0.0001). During the years between 2004 and 2008 (vs. 1995 to 2003), there was a significant increase in the rates of mastectomy performed in conjunction with immediate reconstruction (IR: 35.7% vs. 8.4%; P<0.0001) and/or contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM: 22.9% vs. 3.3%; P<0.0001). On the basis of the multivariate analysis, the rate of receiving mastectomy was drastically higher for patients treated since 2004 (vs. before 2004), uninsured and government-insured (vs. privately insured) patients, patients with pT2 disease (vs. pTis or pT1), patients with pN1 disease (vs. pNX or pN0).In this longitudinal registry study, major independent determinants of mastectomy for early-stage breast cancer include year of diagnosis, insurance status, and stage. Mastectomy rates declined until 2004, but have since increased in conjunction with immediate reconstruction and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. Additional study is needed to identify the underlying reasons for and unintended consequences of the reemergence of radical surgery for early-stage breast cancer in the era of multidisciplinary care.