Tobacco Treatment Programs at National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Centers: A Systematic Review and Online Audit

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Objectives:The main objectives of this study were to evaluate abstinence rates of tobacco treatment programs (TTPs) at National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated cancer centers (DCCs) and to ascertain the number of NCI-DCCs with online references to TTPs.Methods:Literature searches of Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus were performed from their inception through January 2018 using keywords including cancer patients, cancer survivors, tobacco, smoking, cessation, and program. In total, 4094 articles were identified, 1450 duplicates were removed, 2644 candidate titles and abstracts were screened, and 210 selected full-text articles were independently reviewed by 2 authors. Three retrospective, single-institution cohort studies describing system-wide TTPs at 3 NCI-DCCs met inclusion criteria. Secondarily, online website audits of each NCI-DCC were performed to identify institutions with online evidence of a system-wide TTP servicing cancer patients.Results:Among 62 NCI-DCCs, only 3 reported system-wide TTP outcomes. Abstinence rates ranged from 15% to 47%. Online website audit identified 47 NCI-DCCs maintaining system-wide TTPs. Seventeen TTPs were housed within the cancer center and 30 TTPs were offered by the primary affiliated institution; among the latter group, only 13 TTPs were identifiable via the NCI-DCC webpage.Conclusions:Most NCI-DCCs offer tobacco treatment services to cancer patients but very few have reported their results. Increased NCI-DCC TTP outcome publication and online presence are needed.

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