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The aim of this randomized controlled study was to investigate the efficacy of ciprofloxacin compared with mesalazine in treating active Crohn's disease.Patients with a mild to moderate flare-up of Crohn's disease (mean Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI]; 217; range, 160–305) were randomized to receive ciprofloxacin 1 g/day or Pentasa 4 g/day for 6 wk. Complete remission was defined at wk 6 as a CDAI ≤ 150 associated with a decrease (Δ) in CDAI > 75. Partial remission was defined as a CDAI ≤ 150 with 50 < Δ CDAI < 75 or a CDAI > 150 with Δ CDAI > 50 at wk 6. Group sequential procedure with triangular continuation regions was used to monitor the trial through the difference in complete remission rates, every 20 patients included.Inclusion of patients was stopped at the second step, i.e., after 40 inclusions, with the conclusion of no difference in complete remission rates between ciprofloxacin- and Pentasa-treated groups. Among the 18 patients taking ciprofloxacin, two decided to stop treatment during the trial and three were considered as treatment failures because of deterioration at wk 3. Among the 22 patients taking mesalazine, one patient was lost to follow-up and eight patients were considered as treatment failures. Complete remission was observed in 10 patients (56%) treated with ciprofloxacin and 12 patients (55%) treated with mesalazine and partial remission was observed in three and one patient, respectively.This study suggests that ciprofloxacin 1 g/day is as effective as mesalazine 4 g/day in treating mild to moderate flare-up of Crohn's disease.