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Esophageal eosinophilia and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are increasingly recognized and prevalent conditions, which now represent common clinical problems encountered by gastroenterologists, pathologists, and allergists. The study of EoE has become a dynamic field with an evolving understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Although there are limited data supporting management decisions, clinical parameters are needed to guide the care of patients with eosinophilic–esophageal disorders. In this evidence-based review, recommendations developed by adult and pediatric gastroenterologists are provided for the evaluation and management of these patients. New terminology is emphasized, particularly the concepts of esophageal eosinophilia and proton-pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) as entities distinct from EoE.