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Few studies have simultaneously evaluated the long-term outcomes of endoscopic resection (ER) for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of ER for superficial esophageal cancer in consecutive patients.This was a retrospective study from a single institution. From April 2001 to June 2012, 204 patients with SCC and 26 patients with AC were included from a total of 355 consecutive patients who were treated by esophageal ER at the Tohoku University Hospital. Patients with submucosal invasion deeper than 200 μm and lymphovascular involvement were excluded. The intervention followed was endoscopic therapy.Overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence rates were evaluated as long-term outcomes. In the SCC group, during the median observation time of 36.5 months (range, 6–120 months), 22 (10.8%) patients experienced metachronous recurrence, 4 (2.0%) patients experienced local recurrence, and 27 (13.2%) patients died from causes unrelated to SCC. In the AC group, during the median observation time of 45.5 months (range, 6–131 months), one patient (3.8%) experienced metachronous recurrence and two (7.7%) died from causes unrelated to AC. The cumulative 5-year overall survival rates were not significantly different between SCC (75.9%) and AC (88.9%) (P=0.120). The cumulative 5-year disease-free survival rates of SCC (57.1%) were significantly lower than those of AC (85.2%;P=0.017). The cumulative 5-year recurrence rates of SCC (32.0%) were significantly higher than those of AC (4.2%;P=0.023).The rate of recurrence after ER was higher in patients with SCC than that in patients with AC. These findings suggest that, by detecting AC of the esophagus earlier, a satisfactory prognosis without recurrence can be expected after ER in Japan, and more rigorous endoscopic follow-up is necessary after ER in patients with SCC than in those with AC.