Timing or Dosing of Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitors in Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Has Low Impact on Costs


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Abstract

OBJECTIVES:High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) post endoscopy are recommended in non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), as they improve outcomes of patients with high-risk lesions. Determine the budget impact of using different PPI regimens in treating non-variceal UGIB, including pre- and post-endoscopic use, continuous infusion (high dose), and intermittent bolus (twice daily) dosing.METHODS:A budget impact analysis using a decision model informed with data from the literature adopting a US third party payer’s perspective with a 30-day time horizon was used to determine the total cost per patient (US$2014) presenting with acute UGIB. The base-case employing high-dose pre- and post-endoscopic IV PPI was compared with using only post-endoscopic PPI. For each, continuous or intermittent dosing regimens were assessed with associated incremental costs. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.RESULTS:The overall cost per patient is $11,399 when high-dose IV PPIs are initiated before endoscopy. The incremental costs are all inferior in alternate-case scenarios: $106 less if only post-endoscopic high-dose IVs are used; with intermittent IV bolus dosing, the savings are $223 if used both pre and post endoscopy and $191 if only administered post endoscopy. Subgroup analysis suggests cost savings in patients with clean-base ulcers who are discharged early after endoscopy. Results are robust to sensitivity analysis.CONCLUSIONS:The incremental costs of using different IV PPI regimens are modest compared with total per patient costs.

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