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This study assessed the efficacy and safety of plecanatide, a guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonist and the first uroguanylin analog approved for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC).This phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 1,394 patients with CIC. Patients received either plecanatide (3 or 6 mg) or placebo, orally, once daily, for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the percentage of patients who were durable overall complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) responders over the 12-week treatment period. Patients were instructed to record their daily bowel movements, stool consistency scores, and abdominal symptoms in an electronic diary. Treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) were collected.Each dose of plecanatide resulted in a significantly greater percentage of durable overall CSBM responders (21.0%, 3 mg; 19.5%, 6 mg) as compared with placebo (10.2%;P<0.001 for both). Plecanatide (3 and 6 mg) also significantly increased mean weekly CSBM frequency from baseline (increase of 2.5 and 2.2/week, respectively) vs. placebo (1.2/week;P<0.001 for both) and mean weekly spontaneous bowel movement frequency (increase of 3.2 and 3.1/week, respectively) vs. placebo (1.3/week;P<0.001, for both) over the 12-week treatment period. Both plecanatide doses significantly improved all secondary and additional efficacy endpoints. The most common AE, diarrhea, occurred in 1.3% (placebo), 5.9% (3 mg) and 5.7% (6 mg) of patients.Plecanatide significantly improved constipation and its related symptoms with a low rate of adverse events. These results suggest that plecanatide will be a useful treatment option in the management of CIC. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01982240.