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We studied 28 cases of anterior mediastinal liposarcoma occurring in 16 males and 12 females with a mean age of 43 years (range, 14–72). Presenting symptoms included dyspnea (four cases) and chest pain (four cases), although 11 tumors were detected incidentally by routine chest radiography. Seven cases were believed to be located within the thymus. Most (i.e., 25) of the cases were of low grade, with the well-differentiated lipoma-like or sclerosing subtypes constituting 60% and the myxoid subtype constituting 28%; the remaining 12% exhibited mixed features. Three cases were pleomorphic type. Several low grade tumors exhibited widespread, dense aggregates of mature-appearing lymphoctyes and plasma cells, which occasionally obscured the mesenchymal nature of the neoplasm, suggesting instead a lymphoid neoplasm or a reactive fibroinflammatory condition. The three highgrade tumors showed combinations of pleomorphic and round cell patterns, with focal myxoid areas. Of the cases grossly arising within the lesion (“thymoliposarcoma”); six others exhibited residual thymus peripheral to the tumor. Clinical follow-up in 23 cases revealed recurrence in seven patients (31.8%), with a mean interval to recurrence of 3 years. Eight patients died (mean survival, 2.6 years), one postoperatively and three following a recurrence. Fifteen patients were alive (mean survival, 2 years), four with recurrent tumor. The myxoid tumors had a somewhat more aggressive course than the well-differentiated tumors. Metastases were not observed in any of the patients.