Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney: A Review of 351 Cases From the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center
We reviewed 351 cases of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), including 182 cases entered on National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) trials 1–4 for which clinical follow-up information was available. Tumors were restaged using NWTS 5 criteria. Mean age at diagnosis in the NWTS group was 36 months with a range of 2 months to 14 years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Typical gross features included large size (mean diameter 11.3 cm), a mucoid texture, foci of necrosis, and prominent cyst formation. Nine major histologic patterns were identified (classic, myxoid, sclerosing, cellular, epithelioid, palisading, spindle, storiform, and anaplastic); virtually all tumors contained multiple patterns that blended with one another. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 45 cases; only vimentin was consistently immunoreactive. Consistently negative results with other antibodies helped exclude other tumors in the differential diagnosis; all CCSKs were cytokeratin-negative, including epithelioid tumors that mimicked Wilms tumor, and MIC2-negative, including cellular tumors that mimicked primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The p53 gene product was rarely overexpressed in non-anaplastic CCSKs, but strikingly overexpressed in two of three anaplastic CCSKs. Overall survival was 69%. Multivariate analysis revealed four independent prognostic factors for survival: treatment with doxorubicin, stage, age at diagnosis, and tumor necrosis. Of note, stage 1 patients had a remarkable 98% survival rate. No other histologic or clinical variable independently correlated with survival.