Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Kidney: A Review of 351 Cases From the National Wilms Tumor Study Group Pathology Center

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Abstract

We reviewed 351 cases of clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), including 182 cases entered on National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTSG) trials 1–4 for which clinical follow-up information was available. Tumors were restaged using NWTS 5 criteria. Mean age at diagnosis in the NWTS group was 36 months with a range of 2 months to 14 years. The male to female ratio was 2:1. Typical gross features included large size (mean diameter 11.3 cm), a mucoid texture, foci of necrosis, and prominent cyst formation. Nine major histologic patterns were identified (classic, myxoid, sclerosing, cellular, epithelioid, palisading, spindle, storiform, and anaplastic); virtually all tumors contained multiple patterns that blended with one another. Immunohistochemical stains were performed on 45 cases; only vimentin was consistently immunoreactive. Consistently negative results with other antibodies helped exclude other tumors in the differential diagnosis; all CCSKs were cytokeratin-negative, including epithelioid tumors that mimicked Wilms tumor, and MIC2-negative, including cellular tumors that mimicked primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The p53 gene product was rarely overexpressed in non-anaplastic CCSKs, but strikingly overexpressed in two of three anaplastic CCSKs. Overall survival was 69%. Multivariate analysis revealed four independent prognostic factors for survival: treatment with doxorubicin, stage, age at diagnosis, and tumor necrosis. Of note, stage 1 patients had a remarkable 98% survival rate. No other histologic or clinical variable independently correlated with survival.

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