We report a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 108 primary thyroid gland lymphomas (PTLs), classified using the REAL and proposed WHO classification schemes. The patients included 79 women and 29 men, with an average age of 64.3 years. All patients presented with a thyroid mass. The PTLs were classified as marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) or MZBL (n = 30), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with MZBL (n = 36), DLBCL without MZBL (n = 41), and follicle center lymphoma (FCL; n = 1). Excluding the FCL, features of lymphomas of MALT-type were identified in all groups, despite a follicular architecture in 23% of cases. Lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) was identified in 94%. Ninety-one percent of patients presented with stage IE or IIE disease, whereas 69% had perithyroidal soft tissue infiltration. All patients were treated with surgical excision followed by adjuvant therapy (76%): chemotherapy (15%), radiation (19%), or a combination of radiation and chemotherapy (42%). Disease-specific survival was 82% at last follow up (mean, 82.8 mos) and 79% at 5 years. Statistically, stages greater than IE, presence of DLBCL, rapid clinical growth, abundant apoptosis, presence of vascular invasion, high mitotic rate, and infiltration of the perithyroidal soft tissue were significantly associated with death with disease. No patients with MZBL or stage IE disease died with disease. In summary, PTLs typically occur in middle-to older-aged individuals as a thyroid mass, with a predilection for females. Despite their histologic heterogeneity and frequent simulation of other lymphoma subtypes, virtually all PTLs are lymphomas of MALT-type arising in the setting of LT. Mixed DLBCL and MZBL are common. Overall, PTLs have a favorable outcome with appropriate therapy, but prognosis depends on both clinical stage and histology. MZBL and stage IE tumors have an excellent prognosis, whereas tumors with a large cell component or DLBCL or stage greater than IE have the greatest potential for a poor outcome.