Pleomorphic Liposarcoma: Clinicopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Follow-up Analysis of 63 Cases: A Study From the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group

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The clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 63 pleomorphic liposarcomas are presented. There were 35 men and 28 women (median age 63 years; range 18–93 years). Tumor size ranged from 2 to 23 cm (median 10 cm). Tumor locations included lower extremity (36.5%), especially the thigh (28.5%), limb girdles (17.5%), upper extremity (16%), thoracoabdominal wall (9.5%), and internal trunk (20.5%). A total of 75% were deep seated and/or extracompartmental. Histologically, lesions show a varying combination of lipogenic and nonlipogenic areas characterized by malignant fibrous histiocytoma-like, round cell liposarcoma-like, and/or epithelioid/carcinoma-like features. A pericytic pattern was focally present in 15 (24%) tumors. Eighteen (29%) lesions were grade 2, and 45 (71%) were grade 3 sarcomas. Tumor necrosis was observed in 51 (81%) cases, vascular invasion in three, and mitotic counts ranged from 3 to 124 per 10 high power fields (median 25). Lipogenic areas were S-100 protein immunoreactive, at least focally, in 20 of 42 (48%) cases. Nonlipogenic areas showed focal reactivity for smooth muscle actin (24 of 49; 49%), desmin (9 of 48; 19%), CD34 (18 of 45; 40%), S-100 protein (5 of 49, 10%), CD68 (6 of 46, 13%), and epithelial membrane antigen (13 of 49, 26.5%). Epithelioid areas showed epithelial membrane antigen (4 of 11; 36%) but not cytokeratin (0 of 11) reactivity. Treatment procedures in 51 patients consisted of simple tumorectomy (16) and wide excision (33). Five and 31 patients received neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, respectively. Follow-up (48 patients, range 7–276 months; median 38 months) showed a 45% local recurrence rate and a 42.5% metastasis rate, metastases occurring mostly in lungs and pleura. Seventeen patients (35%) died of disease, of whom none was metastatic at diagnosis. Five-year overall, metastasis-free, and local recurrence-free survivals were 57%, 50%, and 48%, respectively. Patient age ≥60 years, truncal tumor location, deep situation, tumor size >5 cm, vascular invasion, and incomplete tumor excision were significant adverse prognostic factors. Tumor grade and histology did not affect patient outcome. In conclusion, pleomorphic liposarcoma is a rare, often deep-seated and limb-based aggressive and metastasizing neoplasm of late adulthood. It shows a wide range of morphologic appearances, but tumor grade and histology have no effect on patient outcome.

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