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Programmed death-1 (PD-1), a member of the CD28 costimulatory receptor family, is expressed by germinal center-associated T cells in reactive lymphoid tissue. In a study of a wide range of lymphoproliferative disorders, neoplastic T cells in 23 cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma were immunoreactive for PD-1, but other subtypes of T cell and B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, as well as classic Hodgkin lymphoma, did not express PD-1. The pattern of PD-1 immunostaining of neoplastic cells in angioimmunoblastic lymphoma was similar to that reported for CD10, a recently described marker of neoplastic T cells in angioimmunoblastic lymphoma. Tumor-associated follicular dendritic cells in cases of angioimmunoblastic lymphoma were found to express PD-L1, the PD-1 ligand. In addition, PD-1-positive reactive T cells formed rosettes around neoplastic L&H cells in 14 cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma studied. These findings, along with data from previous studies, suggest that angioimmunoblastic lymphoma is a neoplasm of germinal center-associated T cells and that there is an association of germinal center-associated T cells and neoplastic cells in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. PD-1 is a useful new marker for angioimmunoblastic lymphoma and lends further support to a model of T-cell lymphomagenesis in which specific subtypes of T cells may undergo neoplastic transformation and result in specific, distinct histologic, immunophenotypic, and clinical subtypes of T-cell neoplasia.