Ovarian Metastases of Appendiceal Tumors With Goblet Cell Carcinoidlike and Signet Ring Cell Patterns: A Report of 30 Cases

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Abstract

Synchronous and metachronous ovarian and appendiceal mucinous tumors are often the subject of diagnostic consultations in gynecologic pathology practices to address whether the tumors are independent neoplasms or related as primary and metastasis. Those with goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns have not been extensively evaluated in a large series. Clinicopathologic features of 30 cases were examined. All patients presented with signs or symptoms related to a pelvic/adnexal or abdominal mass. The ovarian tumors were bilateral in 25 of 28 cases with data on both ovaries and were typically large (mean/median: 14 cm, range: 4.5 to 24.0 cm). The appendices were often firm or thickened but usually did not have a discrete measurable tumor and were not notably enlarged; microscopically, transmural invasion was present in all of them. The ovarian and appendiceal tumors exhibited a variety of patterns of differentiation, including signet ring cell and glandular, with all displaying some goblet cell carcinoidlike patterns (nests, islands, cords, or cryptlike tubules with goblet cells); teratomatous elements were not identified in any ovarian tumors. Chromogranin was expressed in 7 of 19 ovarian tumors (mean/median: 6.3%/0%; range: 0% to 20%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 4 of 18 of these (mean/median: 7.8%/0%; range: 0% to 90%). Chromogranin was expressed in 6 of 16 appendiceal tumors (mean/median: 11.9%/0%; range: 0% to 70%) and synaptophysin was expressed in 6 of 15 of these (mean/median: 16.7%/0%; range: 0% to 90%). Follow-up was available for 25 patients: 17 died of disease at intervals ranging from 4 to 47 months (mean/median: 18/16) and 8 were alive with disease at 1 to 25 months (mean/median: 11/10); median survival was 19 months and the 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 63% and 34%, respectively. The clinicopathologic features of these ovarian tumors indicate they should be labeled as metastatic appendiceal adenocarcinomas rather than as goblet cell carcinoid tumors both to reflect their behavior and help distinguish them from the rare true primary ovarian goblet cell carcinoid tumors. As the ovarian tumors have appreciable components of signet ring cells they qualify as Krukenberg tumors. In cases in which the primary tumor is not already evident, their “goblet cell carcinoidlike” patterns should direct attention to the appendix as a possible source.

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