Low-grade Sinonasal Sarcoma With Neural and Myogenic Features: A Clinicopathologic Analysis of 28 Cases


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Abstract

Sarcomas of the sinonasal region are rare. We describe a distinct spindle cell sarcoma of the sinonasal region characterized by concomitant neural and myogenic differentiation. Consultation files and surgical cases from Mayo Clinic were reviewed. Twenty-eight cases were identified that met the inclusion criteria. Clinical data were collected from medical records, consultation letters, and referring pathologists. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for synovial sarcoma fusion transcripts was performed on 18 cases. Cytogenetic studies were performed on 2 cases. The 21 female and 7 male patients ranged in age from 24 to 85 years (mean, 52 y). All cases showed a characteristic histology, which included a cellular spindle cell neoplasm with uniform, elongate nuclei and an infiltrative growth pattern. All tumors demonstrated expression of S-100 with actin positivity in 96% of cases tested. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for synovial sarcoma fusion transcripts was negative in all cases tested. Cytogenetic studies conducted on 2 cases demonstrated the chromosomal translocation t(2;4). The nasal cavity (54%) and ethmoid sinus (57%) were the most commonly involved areas, singly or in combination. Follow-up information was available for 57% (16/28) of cases, with a mean of 8.3 years. Of these, 44% (7/16) experienced at least 1 recurrence. No patient has developed metastases or died of disease. We describe a unique tumor with a characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic, and cytogenetic profile. On the basis of the locally aggressive nature of this lesion we believe it is best considered a low-grade sarcoma and suggest the term low-grade sinonasal sarcoma with neural and myogenic features.

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