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The effects of adding 0,2 mg preservative-free morphine sulfate in 0.2 ml solution to hyperbaric spinal bupivacaine were evaluated in a double-blind randomized prospective study of 34 patients undergoing elective repeat cesarean section. In the control patients (n = 17), 0.2 ml saline instead of morphine was added to bupivacaine. The intrathecal morphine significantly improved intra- and postoperative analgesia, e.g., 82% of patients given morphine compared with 41% of the control patients did not require analgesic supplementation to the spinal anesthesia during surgery; postoperatively, the former patients did not request additional analgesia for 27 ± 0.7 hours (mean ± SEM) compared with 2 ± 0.3 hours in the control patients. Neonatal condition was not adversely affected by this small dose of morphine administered 11 ± 1 minutes before delivery. Combining 0.2 mg morphine with hyperbaric spinal bupivacaine for cesarean section is a safe and effective method of improving intraoperative pain relief and providing adequate prolonged postoperative analgesia.