Positron emission tomography (PET) is a noninvasive imaging technique that can be used to observe drug actions on human brain in vivo.We used15 O-water PET scanning in six volunteers to examine the effects on regional cerebral activity as reflected by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of a small intravenous bolus of fentanyl. rCBF was compared between scans obtained after fentanyl or a placebo using three separate statistical criteria including a pixel-by-pixel t statistic; significance was stringently defined at P values < 0.01. Anatomic locations of regional cerebral activity changes were verified by aligning rCBF PET scans with cranial magnetic resonance images using mathematical coregistration. Fentanyl administration was associated with significant increases in rCBF consistent with regional neuronal activation in both cingulate and orbitofrontal and medial prefrontal cortices, as well as caudate nuclei. These areas are responsive to nociceptive stimuli and are involved in avoidance learning, reward and addiction, visceromotor control, maintenance of attention, and pain-related affective behavior. Significant decreases were noted in both frontal and temporal areas and the cerebellum, a distribution far less extensive than that of opiate receptors in general. These data indicate that fentanyl's effects are highly localized and specifically affect cerebral regions associated with a range of pain-related behaviors.
(Anesth Analg 1996;82:1247-51)