The Effects of Sevoflurane and Hyperventilation on Electrocorticogram Spike Activity in Patients with Refractory Epilepsy
We investigated the effects of sevoflurane and hyperventilation on intraoperative electrocorticogram (ECoG) spike activity in 13 patients with intractable epilepsy. Grid electrodes were placed on the brain surface and ECoG was recorded under the following conditions: 1) 0.5 minimal alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) sevoflurane, 2) 1.5 MAC sevoflurane, and 3) 1.5 MAC sevoflurane with hyperventilation. The number of spikes per 5 min and the percentage of leads with spikes were assessed in each condition. In 4 patients with chronically implanted-subdural electrodes, the leads with seizure onset and with spikes during the interictal periods in the awake state were compared with those during sevoflurane anesthesia at 0.5 MAC and 1.5 MAC. The number of spikes and the percentage of leads with spikes were significantly more under 1.5 MAC sevoflurane anesthesia compared with those under 0.5 MAC sevoflurane (P < 0.05). The induction of hyperventilation significantly increased the number of spikes and percentage of leads with spikes (P < 0.05). With 0.5 MAC sevoflurane, the leads with spikes were similar to those at seizure onset in the awake state, whereas with 1.5 MAC sevoflurane, spikes were similar to those occurring during interictal periods in the awake state. These results indicate that sevoflurane and hyperventilation can affect the frequency and extent of ECoG spike activity in patients with intractable epilepsy. Careful attention should be paid to the concentration of sevoflurane used and ventilatory status when intraoperative EcoG is used to localize epileptic lesions.