Population Pharmacokinetics of Milrinone in Neonates with Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Undergoing Stage I Reconstruction

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We performed a blinded, randomized pharmacokinetic study of milrinone in 16 neonates with hypoplastic left heart undergoing stage I reconstruction to determine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass and modified ultrafiltration on drug disposition and to define the drug exposure during a continuous IV infusion of drug postoperatively. Neonates received an initial dose of either a 100 or 250 μg/kg of milrinone into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit at the start of rewarming. Postoperatively, milrinone was infused to clinical needs. A mixed-effect modeling approach was used to characterize milrinone pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass, modified ultrafiltration, and postoperatively using the NONMEM algorithm. All patients in this study demonstrated a modified ultrafiltration concentrating effect that occurred despite a modified ultrafiltration drug clearance of 3.3 mL · kg−1 · min−1. The infants in this study demonstrated an impaired renal clearance during the immediate postoperative period. A constant infusion of 0.5 μg · kg−1 · min−1 resulted in drug accumulation during the initial 12 h of drug administration. Postoperatively, milrinone clearance was significantly impaired (0.4 mL · kg−1 · min−1), improved by the 12th postoperative hour, and approached steady-state clearance (2.6 mL · kg−1 · min−1) by postoperative day 4. In the postoperative setting of markedly impaired renal function, an infusion rate of 0.2 μg · kg−1 · min−1 should be considered.

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