2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Attenuates Isoflurane-Induced Cytotoxicity in an In Vitro Cell Culture Model of H4 Human Neuroglioma Cells

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BACKGROUND:β-Amyloid protein (Aβ) accumulation and caspase activation have been shown to contribute to Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. Aβ is produced from amyloid precursor protein through proteolytic processing by aspartyl protease β-site amyloid precursor protein–cleaving enzyme (BACE). The inhaled anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase activation and increase levels of BACE and Aβ. However, the underlying mechanisms and interventions of the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity remain largely to be determined. The glucose analog 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) has neuroprotective effects. Therefore, we sought to determine whether 2-DG can reduce caspase-3 activation and the increase in the levels of BACE and reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by isoflurane.METHODS:H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with saline or 2-DG (5 mM) for 1 hour followed by a control condition or 2% isoflurane for 6 hours. The levels of caspase-3 cleavage (activation), BACE, cytosolic calcium, and ROS were determined. Two-way analysis of variance was used to assess the interactions of 2-DG and isoflurane on caspase-3 activation, and levels of BACE and ROS.RESULTS:In H4 human neuroglioma cells, 2-DG reduced the caspase-3 activation (477% vs 186%, F = 8.68; P = 0.019) and the increase in BACE levels (345% vs 123%, F = 42.24; P = 0.0002) induced by isoflurane. 2-DG decreased the levels of cytosolic calcium and ROS (100% vs 66%, F = 1.94; P = 0.014).CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that 2-DG may decrease oxidative stress and increase cytosolic calcium levels, thus attenuating isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity.

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