Closed-Loop Fluid Resuscitation: Robustness Against Weight and Cardiac Contractility Variations

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BACKGROUND:Surgical patients present with a wide variety of body sizes and blood volumes, have large differences in baseline volume status, and may exhibit significant differences in cardiac function. Any closed-loop fluid administration system must be robust against these differences. In the current study, we tested the stability and robustness of the closed-loop fluid administration system against the confounders of body size, starting volume status, and cardiac contractility using control engineering methodology.METHODS:Using an independently developed previously published hemodynamic simulation model that includes blood volumes and cardiac contractility, we ran a Monte-Carlo simulation series with variation in starting blood volume and body weight (phase 1, weight 35–100 kg), and starting blood volume and cardiac contractility (phase 2, contractility from 1500 [severe heart failure] to 6000 [hyperdynamic]). The performance of the controller in resuscitating to the target set point was evaluated in terms of milliliters of blood volume error from optimal, with <250 mL of error defined as “successful.”RESULTS:One thousand simulations were run for each of the 2 phases of the study. The phase 1 mean blood volume error ± SD from optimal was 25 ± 59 mL. The phase 2 mean blood volume error from optimal was −60 ± 89 mL. The lower 95% Clopper-Pearson binomial confidence interval for resuscitation to within 250 mL of optimal blood volume for phase 1 and 2 was 99.6% and 97.1%, respectively.CONCLUSION:The results indicate that the controller is highly effective in targeting optimal blood and stroke volumes, regardless of weight, contractility or starting blood volume.

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