The commonly used inhaled anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to induce caspase-3 activation. However, the underlying mechanism(s) and targeted intervention(s) remain largely to be determined. Isoflurane may induce caspase-3 activation via causing accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dysfunction, and reduction in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. Therefore, we performed a hypothesis-generation study to determine whether glucose could attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation, ROS accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and ATP reduction in cultured cells.METHODS:
H4 human neuroglioma cells (H4 cells) were treated with 2% isoflurane or the control condition plus saline or 50 mM glucose for 6 or 3 hours. Caspase-3 activation, cell viability, levels of ROS and ATP, and mitochondrial membrane potential were determined at the end of the experiments by Western blot analysis and fluorescence assay.RESULTS:
We found that the glucose treatment might attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation and reduction of cell viability in H4 cells. Moreover, the glucose treatment mitigated the isoflurane-induced increase in ROS levels and reduction in ATP levels in H4 cells. Unexpectedly, we observed that the glucose treatment might not inhibit the isoflurane-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in H4 cells.CONCLUSIONS:
Pending further studies, these results suggested that glucose might attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation through a mitochondria-independent reduction in ROS levels and enhancement in ATP levels. These findings have established a system and suggest that it is worth performing more research to further investigate whether glucose can attenuate anesthesia neurotoxicity.