Systolic Blood Pressure Variation is a Sensitive Indicator of Hypovolemia in Ventilated Dogs Subjected to Graded Hemorrhage

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Systolic pressure variation (SPV) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimum values of systolic blood pressure following a single positive pressure breath. An increase in the SPV is known to occur clinically during hypovolemia. This study aims to quantify SPV during graded hemorrhage in ventilated dogs, and to compare its reliability relative to other hemodynamic indicators of hypovolemia. Ten anesthetized dogs were mechanically ventilated with a fixed tidal volume. A continuously inflated vest was applied around the chest to maintain the ratio of lung to chest wall compliance similar to that of humans (0.83 ± 0.12). SPV was further divided into δ up and δ down components relative to apneic (5 s) systolic blood pressure. Dogs were bled 5, 10, 20, and 30% of their estimated blood volume. The measured parameters best correlated to the amount of bleeding were SPV (ra, = 0.993), δ down (ra, = 0.981), and cardiac output (ra, = 0.976). The SPV and its δ down component correlated to the degree of hemorrhage as well as the CO and the pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and significantly better than the central venous pressure and the mean systemic blood pressure. Thus, SPV and its δ down component arc accurate indicators of hypovolemia in ventilated dogs subjected to hemorrhage.

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