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Hypothermia is common in surgical patients and victims of major trauma; it also results from environmental exposure and drug abuse. In most cases, hypothermia results largely from drug-induced inhibition of normal thermoregulatory control. Although opioids are given to a variety of patients, the thermoregulatory effects of opioids in humans remain unknown. Accordingly, the hypothesis that opioid administration impairs thermoregulatory control was tested.