Quantitative Sensory Testing and Human Surgery: Effects of Analgesic Management on Postoperative Neuroplasticity

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Abstract

Background

Altered central nervous system sensory processing (neuroplasticity) is a basic mechanism underlying postoperative pain that can be made visible using quantitative sensory testing. Using quantitative sensory testing, the authors investigated how perioperative analgesia affects postoperative neuroplasticity and how this relates to clinical pain measures.

Methods

Patients undergoing back surgery received placebo, fentanyl, or ketorolac (n = 15 per group) before isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Preoperatively to 5 days postoperatively, we measured thresholds to electrical skin stimulation at the incision site, arm, and leg; pain scores; and morphine patient-controlled analgesia consumption.

Results

Decreased pain thresholds versus preoperatively were seen 5 days postoperatively, with decreases greater for ketorolac (−63%;P = 0.00005 vs. preoperatively) than placebo (−45%;P = 0.008 vs. preoperatively) but nonsignificant for fentanyl (−36%;P = 0.9 vs. preoperatively). Mainly nonnociceptive thresholds were increased up to 24 h postoperatively. Postoperative clinical pain measures were similar across drug groups. Postoperative pain tolerance threshold changes did not correlate with preoperative clinical pain measures but were inversely related to preoperative thresholds for placebo and ketorolac but not fentanyl.

Conclusions

Without analgesia, neuroplasticity after surgery was inhibitory the first 24 h and followed at 5 days by excitation. Fentanyl efficiently preempted this hyperalgesia, but hyperalgesia was greater with ketorolac than with placebo. Clinical pain measures neither reflected the different effects of ketorolac and fentanyl on postoperative neuroplasticity nor permitted prediction of postoperative neuroplasticity. The information obtained by perioperative quantitative sensory testing is separate from and additional to that from clinical pain measures and may enable more mechanism-based approaches to surgical analgesia management in the future.

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