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Animal studies have demonstrated neuroprotective properties of S-ketamine, but its effects on cerebral blood flow (CBF), metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and glucose metabolic rate (GMR) have not been comprehensively studied in humans.Positron emission tomography was used to quantify CBF and CMRO2 in eight healthy male volunteers awake and during S-ketamine infusion targeted to subanesthetic (150 ng/ml) and anesthetic (1,500–2,000 ng/ml) concentrations. In addition, subjects’ GMRs were assessed awake and during anesthesia. Whole brain estimates for cerebral blood volume were obtained using kinetic modeling.The mean ± SD serum S-ketamine concentration was 159 ± 21 ng/ml at the subanesthetic and 1,959 ± 442 ng/ml at the anesthetic levels. The total S-ketamine dose was 10.4 mg/kg. S-ketamine increased heart rate (maximally by 43.5%) and mean blood pressure (maximally by 27.0%) in a concentration-dependent manner (P = 0.001 for both). Subanesthetic S-ketamine increased whole brain CBF by 13.7% (P = 0.035). The greatest regional CBF increase was detected in the anterior cingulate (31.6%; P = 0.010). No changes were detected in CMRO2. Anesthetic S-ketamine increased whole brain CBF by 36.4% (P = 0.006) but had no effect on whole brain CMRO2 or GMR. Regionally, CBF was increased in nearly all brain structures studied (greatest increase in the insula 86.5%; P < 0.001), whereas CMRO2 increased only in the frontal cortex (by 15.7%; P = 0.007) and GMR increased only in the thalamus (by 11.7%; P = 0.010). Cerebral blood volume was increased by 51.9% (P = 0.011) during anesthesia.S-ketamine–induced CBF increases exceeded the minor changes in CMRO2 and GMR during anesthesia.