Kinetics and Extravascular Retention of Acetated Ringer’s Solution during Isoflurane or Propofol Anesthesia for Thyroid Surgery

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In sheep, isoflurane causes extravascular accumulation of infused crystalloid fluid. The current study evaluates whether isoflurane has a greater tendency than propofol to cause extravascular retention in surgical patients.


Thirty patients undergoing thyroid surgery lasting for 143 ± 32 min (mean ± SD) received an intravenous infusion of 25 ml/kg acetated Ringer’s solution over 30 min. Anesthesia was randomized to consist of isoflurane or propofol supplemented by fentanyl. The distribution and elimination of the infused fluid was estimated using volume kinetics based on the fractional dilution of blood hemoglobin over 150 min. Extravascular retention of infused fluid was taken as the difference between the model-predicted elimination and the urinary excretion. The sodium and fluid balances were measured.


The fractional plasma dilution increased gradually to approximately 30% during the infusion and thereafter remained at 15–20%. Urinary excretion averaged 11% of the infused volume. Mean arterial pressure was 10 mmHg lower in the isoflurane group (P < 0.001). The excess fluid volumes in the central and peripheral functional body fluid spaces were virtually identical in the groups. The sum of water losses by evaporation and extravascular fluid retention amounted to 2.0 ± 2.5 ml/min for isoflurane and 2.2 ± 2.1 ml/min for propofol. The sodium balance refuted that major fluid shifts occurred between the extracellular and intracellular spaces.


The amount of evaporation and extravascular retention of fluid was small during thyroid surgery, irrespective of whether anesthesia was maintained by isoflurane or propofol.

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