Nitrous Oxide Revisited: Evidence for Potent Antihyperalgesic Properties
Although opioids are unsurpassed analgesics for surgery, they also induce an N-methyl-d-aspartate–dependent enhancement of postoperative hyperalgesia. Because nitrous oxide (N2O) has anti–N-methyl-d-aspartate properties, the purpose of this study was to evaluate nitrous oxide ability to prevent such an opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rats.Methods:
First, preventive effects of 50/50% N2O–O2 on the development of delayed hyperalgesia observed after inflammatory pain (hind paw carrageenan injection on D0) were examined for several days. Second, the ability of nitrous oxide (10–40%) to limit opioid-induced hyperalgesia induced by fentanyl was evaluated in nonsuffering rats. Third, antihyperalgesic effects of various nitrous oxide concentrations (20–50%) were assessed in both inflammatory and incisional pain models in fentanyl-treated rats (4 × 100 μg/kg subcutaneously). Finally, the analgesic effect of a single dose of morphine was evaluated 24 h after fentanyl administration and nitrous oxide (D0) to assess its preventive effect on acute morphine tolerance in both nonsuffering and hind paw–incised rats.Results:
When applied on D0, nitrous oxide reduced delayed hyperalgesia induced by inflammation. Exposure to nitrous oxide on D0 also reduced opioid-induced hyperalgesia in nonsuffering rats in a dose-dependent manner. In fentanyl-treated rats with inflammatory or incisional pain, nitrous oxide strongly limited both magnitude and duration of hyperalgesia. Moreover, nitrous oxide exposure on D0 opposed development of acute tolerance to analgesic effects of morphine administered on D1 in both nonsuffering and incised fentanyl-treated rats.Conclusions:
Nitrous oxide, an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, prevented the enhancement of pain sensitivity induced by both nociceptive inputs and fentanyl and opposed acute morphine tolerance. Results suggest that perioperative nitrous oxide use reduces exaggerated postoperative pain and morphine consumption.