Isoflurane Postconditioning Prevents Opening of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore through Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β
Postischemic administration of volatile anesthetics activates reperfusion injury salvage kinases and decreases myocardial damage. However, the mechanisms underlying anesthetic postconditioning are unclear.Methods:
Isolated perfused rat hearts were exposed to 40 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. Anesthetic postconditioning was induced by 15 min of 2.1 vol% isoflurane (1.5 minimum alveolar concentration) administered at the onset of reperfusion. In some experiments, atractyloside (10 μm), a mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opener, and LY294002 (15 μm), a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, were coadministered with isoflurane. Western blot analysis was used to determine phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and its downstream target glycogen synthase kinase 3β after 15 min of reperfusion. Myocardial tissue content of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide served as a marker for mPTP opening. Accumulation of MitoTracker Red 580 (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen, Basel, Switzerland) was used to visualize mitochondrial function.Results:
Anesthetic postconditioning significantly improved functional recovery and decreased infarct size (36 ± 1% in unprotected hearts vs. 3 ± 2% in anesthetic postconditioning; P < 0.05). Isoflurane-mediated protection was abolished by atractyloside and LY294002. LY294002 inhibited isoflurane-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β and opened mPTP as determined by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide measurements. Atractyloside, a direct opener of the mPTP, did not inhibit phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase 3β by isoflurane but reversed isoflurane-mediated cytoprotection. Microscopy showed accumulation of the mitochondrial tracker in isoflurane-protected functional mitochondria but no staining in mitochondria of unprotected hearts.Conclusions:
Anesthetic postconditioning by isoflurane effectively protects against reperfusion damage by preventing opening of the mPTP through inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β.