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Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is rigorously regulated by various powerful mechanisms to safeguard the match between cerebral metabolic demand and supply. The question of how a change in cardiac output (CO) affects CBF is fundamental, because CBF is dependent on constantly receiving a significant proportion of CO. The authors reviewed the studies that investigated the association between CO and CBF in healthy volunteers and patients with chronic heart failure. The overall evidence shows that an alteration in CO, either acutely or chronically, leads to a change in CBF that is independent of other CBF-regulating parameters including blood pressure and carbon dioxide. However, studies on the association between CO and CBF in patients with varying neurologic, medical, and surgical conditions were confounded by methodologic limitations. Given that CBF regulation is multifactorial but the various processes must exert their effects on the cerebral circulation simultaneously, the authors propose a conceptual framework that integrates the various CBF-regulating processes at the level of cerebral arteries/arterioles while still maintaining autoregulation. The clinical implications pertinent to the effect of CO on CBF are discussed. Outcome research relating to the management of CO and CBF in high-risk patients or during high-risk surgeries is needed.