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Up to 20% of patients undergoing major surgery experience postoperative delirium or cognitive dysfunctionIntraoperative management strategies to reduce the risk of postoperative delirium remain unclearThe heterogeneity of cognitive dysfunction primary studies prevents meaningful meta-analysesMeta-analysis of five randomized controlled trials demonstrated that use of intraoperative processed electroencephalogram monitoring is associated with a decreased risk of postoperative deliriumPostoperative delirium complicates approximately 15 to 20% of major operations in patients at least 65 yr old and is associated with adverse outcomes and increased resource utilization. Furthermore, patients with postoperative delirium might also be at risk of developing long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction. One potentially modifiable variable is use of intraoperative processed electroencephalogram to guide anesthesia. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the relationship between processed electroencephalogram monitoring and postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction.A systematic search for randomized controlled trials was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google search using the keywords processed electroencephalogram, Bispectral Index, postoperative delirium, postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Screening and data extraction were conducted by two independent reviewers, and risk of bias was assessed. Postoperative delirium combined-effect estimates calculated with a fixed-effects model were expressed as odds ratios with 95% CIs.Thirteen of 369 search results met inclusion criteria. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction data were excluded in meta-analysis because of heterogeneity of outcome measurements; results were discussed descriptively. Five studies were included in the quantitative postoperative delirium analysis, with data pooled from 2,654 patients. The risk of bias was low in three studies and unclear for the other two. The use of processed electroencephalogram-guided anesthesia was associated with a 38% reduction in odds for developing postoperative delirium (odds ratio = 0.62; P < 0.001; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.76).Processed electroencephalogram-guided anesthesia was associated with a decrease in postoperative delirium. The mechanism explaining this association, however, is yet to be determined. The data are insufficient to assess the relationship between processed electroencephalogram monitoring and postoperative cognitive dysfunction.