Early Tissue Reaction to Textured Breast Implant Surfaces

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Capsular contracture around breast implants with smooth surfaces continues to be an unpredictable complication. Some surgeons believe that silicone implants covered with porous polyurethane foam have a lowered potential to contract. These textured implants are not as biocompatible as silicone. Recently, silicone implants with textured surfaces have been introduced with the hope that the incidence of unacceptable implant contracture will be reduced. Using a rat implant model, the tissue reaction to textured implant surfaces was assessed. The implant surfaces evaluated were Silastic II, Siltex, MISTI, Biocell, Silastic MSI, and Mime. Disks of each implant material were implanted under the dorsal skin of rats for a period of 28 days. Each implant with its surrounding tissue was excised, processed for histological analysis, and assessed for the tissue's response to the implant with particular emphasis on the formation of a continuous collagen capsule. The results indicated that the magnitude of surface texturing influenced the development of a complete capsule. Implant surfaces with a texture of less than 150 µm in height or depth (Silastic II, Siltex, and MISTI) resulted in the formation of complete capsules. An implant (Biocell) with irregular texturing (200-350 µm) produced an organized capsule over most of its surface with localized interruptions of the capsule at the sites of its deepest cavities. Implant surfaces with texturing that exceeded 350 µm in height or depth (Silastic MSI and Même) resulted in inhibition of the formation of a continuous capsule during this 28-day study.

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