We developed a rat model to test the effects of vascularized maxilla allotransplantation on composite maxillary substructures. Allograft maxilla transplantations were performed across the major histocompatibility barrier between 10 Lewis-Brown-Norway (RT1n+l) and 10 Lewis (RT1l) recipient rats under cyclosporin A monotherapy. Grafts were dissected along Le-Fort II osteotomy lines based on the common carotid artery and external jugular vein and transplanted to the anterior abdominal wall via microvascular anastomosis. Allografts were examined by tomography, flow cytometry, angiography, and histology. Three of the allografts survived up to 105 days without any signs of rejection. High level of donor-specific chimerism for T-cell and B-cell lineages was maintained in the peripheral blood. The incisors continued to grow; teeth buds, bone, cartilage, and mucosa remained intact. Moderate inflammation of the nasal, oral mucosa, and keratinous metaplasia was noted histologically. We created a maxilla allotransplantation model that allows the study of immunologic responses and demonstrates potential clinical applications based on the growth properties of the allograft.