The study developed a model of composite facial and scalp allograft transplantation in canines. Dog cadavers were used for anatomy study. Three types of autotransplantations and 2 types of allotransplantations were performed. Cyclosporin A and methylprednisolone or prednisone were given for immunosuppression. Two long-term-surviving dogs with autologous facial transplantation developed leakage of salivary secretions. In the allotransplantation group (n = 5), 1 dog presented rejection at 28 postoperative days but was successfully treated and survived long term (>402 days); 1 dog died of pulmonary infection at 29 postoperative days; 3 dogs survived (>252, >222, and >201 days). Serial electromyelogram studies revealed progressive improvement of the function of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The study indicated that the unilateral superior half of the composite facial and scalp, including one third of the inferior tarsal plate and palpebral conjunctiva (type IV flap) allograft transplantation model, was an ideal model for the study of facial allotransplantation.