Propeller Flaps With Reduced Rotational Angles: Clinical Experience on 40 Consecutive Reconstructions Performed at Different Anatomical Sites

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Despite of the widespread use of 180-degree propeller flaps in the field of soft tissue reconstruction, less information are available in the current literature to standardize the use of propeller flaps with reduced degrees of rotation.


The authors report their experience with propeller flaps with reduced rotational angles reviewing clinical applications and outcomes of the technique in a series of 40 consecutive reconstructions.

Patients and Methods

Forty elective defects of various etiologies located in different regions of the body (head and neck, trunk, buttocks and perineum, extremities) were reconstructed with less than 180 degrees rotated propeller flaps. The technique was applied to patients presenting with a strong audible perforator detected in close proximity to the wound and the defect located in a position adjacent to the axis of the chosen perforasome.


Defect size ranged from 2 × 2 to 15 × 9 cm. Flap dimensions ranged from 5 × 2 to 21 × 10 cm. The flaps were based on 1 (34) or 2 (6) perforators and were mobilized with an angle of rotation of 45, 90, and 135 degrees in 7, 24, and 9 patients, respectively. Mean operative time was 105 minutes. All flaps survived postoperatively. In only 4 cases (10%) partial flap necrosis was registered. All flaps achieved adequate and durable reconstruction with excellent contour, with a follow-up ranging between 6 months and 2 years.


Propeller flaps with reduced rotational angles represent a safe and versatile option to reconstruct soft tissues defects at different anatomical sites.

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