Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance Cytotoxicity Towards Breast Tumors While Preserving the Wound-Healing Function of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

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IntroductionPaclitaxel improves the oncologic response of breast cancer resections; however, it may negatively affect the wound-healing potential of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) for fat grafting and reconstructive surgery. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) modify the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and stabilize microtubules similarly to paclitaxel, thus, creating a synergistic mechanism of cell cycle arrest. We aim to combine these drugs to enhance cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cells, while preserving the wound-healing function of hASCs for downstream reconstructive applications.MethodsTriple negative breast cancer cells (MBA-MB-231) and hASCs (institutional review board–approved clinical isolates) were treated with a standard therapeutic dose of paclitaxel (1.0 μM) or with low-dose paclitaxel (0.1 μM) combined with the HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or trichostatin A. Cell viability, gene expression, apoptosis, and wound-healing/migration were measured via methylthiazol tetrazolium assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, annexin V assay, and fibroblast scratch assay, respectively.ResultsCombined HDACi and low-dose paclitaxel therapy maintained cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cells and preserved adipose-derived stem cell viability. Histone deacetylase inhibitor demonstrated selective anti-inflammatory effects on adipose-derived stem cell gene expression and decreased expression of the proapoptotic gene FAS. Furthermore, HDACi therapy did not increase relative apoptosis within hASCs. A scratch assay demonstrated enhanced wound healing among injured fibroblasts indirectly co-cultured with HDACi-treated hASCs.ConclusionsCombining HDACi with low-dose paclitaxel improved cytotoxicity towards breast cancer cells and preserved hASC viability. Furthermore, enhanced wound healing was observed by improved migration in a fibroblast scratch assay. These results suggest that the addition of HDACi to taxane chemotherapy regimens may improve oncologic results and wound-healing outcomes after reconstructive surgery.

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