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The in vivo neutralizing activities of an anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antibody HA-1A (Centoxin [Centocor, Malvern, PA]), a human immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody, and of bactericidal/ permeability-increasing protein (BPI), an endogenously produced human LPS-neutralizing protein, were studied in a primate model of lethal Escherichia coli bacteremia.HA-1A has been used with variable success against LPS activity in some animal models and in a recently reported clinical trial. However, no data assessing the efficacy of this agent in subhuman primates is available. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein is a product of polymorphomononuclear cells (PMNs) that is stored in azurophilic granules and exhibits LPS-neutralizing activity in vitro and in some in vivo models.Immediately after E. coli infusion and in a blinded fashion, three baboons were treated with BPI (5 mg/kg bolus infusion and 95 μg/kg/min infusion over 4 hr). Three animals received 3 mg/kg BW of HA-1 A, whereas another three baboons received a placebo treatment.The BPI-treated animals demonstrated significantly (p < 0.03) lower circulating LPS-limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) activity compared with the control animals, but this reduction in LPS-LAL activity was not associated with improved survival. HA-1A treatment did not reduce LPS-LAL activity. However, both BPI and HA-1A treatment did attenuate the pro-inflammatory cytokine response.The current data suggests that incomplete neutralization of endotoxin activity does not alter mortality from severe bacteremia. Given the diversity of mediator production under such circumstances, a strategy of combination therapy in the form of anti-lipopolysaccharide and anticytokine treatment may be necessary to achieve optimal survival.