Laparoscopic Unilateral and Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing's Syndrome: Transperitoneal and Retroperitoneal Approaches

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Abstract

Objective

This prospective randomized study compares the safety and efficacy of transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy (TLPA) and retroperitoneal approach (RLPA) in obese patients with Cushing's syndrome.

Summary Background Data

Recently, a retroperitoneal laparoscopic approach has been described with benefits of avoiding the respiratory and hemodynamic effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum and giving direct access without the need to mobilize abdominal organs.

Methods

Twenty-one adrenalectomies were performed in 9 patients (2 men, 7 women; mean age, 46.33 ± 19.41 years old; range, 16 to 74 years old) with Cushing's adenoma and in 6 women (mean age, 41.83 ± 9.97 years old; range, 34 to 62 years old) with Cushing's disease. Randomization gave 10 TLPA and 11 RLPA. Arterial blood gas samples, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and clinical parameters were evaluated.

Results

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) increased in both retroperitoneal and transperitoneal CO2 insufflation compared with basal values (p < 0.01), and the TLPA showed a greater rise in the PaCO2 level compared with the RLPA at 30 minutes (p < 0.05); simultaneously, a significant increase (p < 0.05) of mean arterial pressure was observed in the TLPA compared with RLPA. No significant changes in heart rate were observed in both groups. The operative time with the TLPA and RLPA in patients with adenoma was 88.75 versus 105 minutes, respectively (p = not significant [NS]), and in patients with bilateral hyperplasia was 271.66 versus 305 minutes, respectively (p = NS). No patients required blood transfusions. The number of doses of analgesic with TLPA and RLPA in patients with adenoma was 3.25 versus 3.5, respectively (p = NS), and in patients with bilateral hyperplasia was 7.66 versus 7.33, respectively (p = NS). The hospital stay with TLPA and RLPA in patients with adenoma was 3.0 versus 2.75 days, respectively (p = NS), and in patients with bilateral hyperplasia was 6.0 versus 6.66 days, respectively (p = NS). The days to return to normal activity with TLPA and RLPA in patients with adenoma were 12.5 versus 12.25, respectively (p = NS), and in patients with bilateral hyperplasia were 19.66 versus 19.33, respectively (p = NS). Two patients with bilateral hyperplasia and TLPA had urinary infection.

Conclusions

Transperitoneal laparoscopic adrenalectomy and RLPA may become the techniques of choice for surgical removal of the adrenal lesions in Cushing's syndrome. The retroperitoneoscopic approach might be a better option in patients with previous abdominal surgery and in patients with pre-existing cardiorespiratory disease.

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