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This study was conducted to determine whether the perioperative administration of octreotide decreases the incidence of pancreatic anastomotic leak after pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy.Three multicenter, prospective, randomized trials concluded that patients who receive octreotide during and after pancreatic resection have a reduction in the total number of complications or a decreased incidence of pancreatic fistula. However, in the subset of patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy, either no analysis was performed or no benefit from octreotide could be demonstrated.A single-institution, prospective, randomized trial was conducted between June 1991 and December 1995 involving 120 patients who were randomized to receive octreotide (150 μg subcutaneously every 8 hours through postoperative day 5) or no further treatment after pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy. The surgical technique was standardized, and the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis was created using the duct-to-mucosa or invagination technique.The two patient groups were similar with respect to patient demographics, treatment variables, and histologic diagnoses. The rate of clinically significant pancreatic leak was 12% in the octreotide group and 6% in the control group (p = 0.23). Perioperative morbidity was 30% and 25%, respectively. Patients who underwent reoperative pancreaticoduodenectomy had an increased incidence of pancreatic anastomotic leak, whereas those who received preoperative chemoradiation had a decreased incidence of pancreatic anastomotic leak.The routine use of octreotide after pancreaticoduodenectomy for malignancy cannot be recommended.