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To characterize factors predictive of improved survival following gastrectomy with additional organ resection for the treatment of gastric cancer.Recent large series have reported significant survival disadvantages to patients who have undergone gastrectomy with splenectomy or pancreaticosplenectomy, and yet gastrectomy with additional organ resection is needed to accomplish an R0 resection in some cases. Gastrectomy with splenectomy and other organ resections has been associated with advanced T-stage, positive resection margins, and higher postoperative morbidity and mortality rather than an absolute predictor of survival.The authors reviewed the Department of Surgery prospective gastric database at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from July 1985 to July 2000. During this period, of the 2,112 patients with primary gastric cancer, 1,133 underwent an R0 resection. The R0 resection group included 865 patients who underwent gastrectomy alone and 268 patients who underwent gastrectomy with another organ resection. Clinicopathologic, operative, complication, and survival data were compared between these two groups. Chi-square analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method were used to compare and estimate median survival.The most common organs resected were the spleen and pancreas, with an even distribution of other organs. Pathologic factors revealed that the gastrectomy with organ resection group had significantly larger lesions, greater T-stage, and a higher incidence of advanced nodal disease than the group who did not undergo additional organ resection. The incidence of pathologically confirmed T4 cancers in the additional organ resection group was only 14%. The overall 5-year survival rate for patients with T3/T4 disease was 27% with additional organ resection. The overall 5-year survival rate for the gastrectomy with organ resection group (32%, median 32 months) was significantly less than the group that did not undergo additional resection (50%, median 63 months) on univariate analysis. However, additional organ resection was not a predictor of survival on multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis identified advanced T-stage (T3 or greater) and nodal stage (N1 or greater) as adverse predictors of survival in this group.Long-term survival following gastrectomy with additional organ resection is possible. Depth of invasion and the extent of lymph node metastasis are the most important predictors of survival following gastrectomy with additional organ resection, and a R0 resection has been achieved. Judicious use of additional organ resection for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer must be emphasized, given the increased overall morbidity and infrequent finding of actual T4 disease. Additional organ resection can be performed with minimal morbidity and can improve the chance of overall survival in patients with advanced T-stage disease.