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To compare laparoscopic cardia myotomy and fundoplication with botulinum toxin (BoTx) injection in patients with esophageal achalasia.Although myotomy is thought to offer better results, recent studies have reported 80% success rates after 2 BoTx injections a month apart. No randomized controlled trials comparing the 2 treatments have been published so far.Newly diagnosed achalasia patients were randomly assigned to BoTx injection or laparoscopic myotomy. Symptoms were scored; lower esophageal sphincter resting and nadir pressures were measured by manometry; barium swallow was used to assess esophageal diameter pre- and post-treatment. Eight to one hundred units of BoTx were injected twice, a month apart, at the esophagogastric junction. Myotomy included anterior partial (Dor) or Nissen fundoplication.Eighty patients were involved in the study: 40 received BoTx and 40 underwent myotomy. Mortality was nil. One surgical patient bled from the trocar site. Median hospital stay was 6 days for surgery; BoTox patients were treated as day-hospital admissions. All patients completed the follow-up. After 6 months, the results in the 2 groups were comparable, although symptom scores improved more in surgical patients (82% confidence interval [CI] 76–89 vs. 66% CI 57–75, P < 0.05). The drop in lower esophageal sphincter pressure was similar in the 2 groups; the reduction in esophageal diameter was greater after surgery (19% CI 13–26 vs. 5% CI 2–11, P < 0.05). Later on, symptoms recurred in 65% of the BoTx-treated patients and the probability of being symptom-free at 2 years was 87.5% after surgery and 34% after BoTx (P < 0.05).Laparoscopic myotomy is as safe as BoTx treatment and is a 1-shot treatment that cures achalasia in most patients. BoTx should be reserved for patients who are unfit for surgery or as a bridge to more effective therapies, such as surgery or endoscopic dilation.