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To report the first 5-year overall survival results in patients with colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver who have undergone hepatic resection after staging with [18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).The 5-year overall survival after hepatic resection for colorectal cancer metastases without preoperative FDG-PET has been established in 19 studies (6070 patients). The median 5-year overall survival rate in these studies is 30% and has not improved over time. FDG-PET detects unsuspected tumor in 25% of patients considered to have resectable hepatic metastasis by conventional staging.From March 1995 to June 2002, all patients having hepatic resection for colorectal cancer metastases had preoperative FDG-PET. A prospective database was maintained.One hundred patients (56 men, 44 women) were studied. Metastases were synchronous in 52, single in 63, unilateral in 78, and <5 cm in diameter in 60. Resections were major (>3 segments) in 75 and resection margins were ≥1 cm in 52. Median follow up was 31 months, with 12 actual greater than 5-year survivors. There was 1 postoperative death. The actuarial 5-year overall survival was 58% (95% confidence interval, 46–72%). Primary tumor grade was the only prognostic variable significantly correlated with overall survival.Screening by FDG-PET is associated with excellent postresection 5-year overall survival for patients undergoing resection of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. FDG-PET appears to define a new cohort of patients in whom tumor grade is a very important prognostic variable.