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The role of adjuvant chemoradiation in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This report presents the long-term follow-up results of EORTC trial 40891, which assessed the role of chemoradiation in resectable pancreatic cancer.Two hundred eighteen patients were randomized after resection of the primary tumor. Eligible patients had T1–2 N0-N1a M0 pancreatic cancer or T1–3 N0-N1a M0 periampullary cancers, all histologic proven. Patients in the treatment group (n = 110) underwent postoperative chemoradiation (40 Gy plus 5-FU). Patients in the control group (n = 108) had no further adjuvant treatment.After a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 173 deaths (79%) have been reported. The overall survival did not differ between the 2 treatment groups (Chemoradiation treatment vs. Controls: death rate ratio 0.91, 95% CI: 0.68–1.23, P value 0.54). The 10-year overall survival was 18% in the whole population of patients (8% in the pancreatic head cancer group and 29% in the periampullary cancer group).These results confirm the previous short-term analysis, indicating no benefit of adjuvant chemoradiation over observation in patients with resected pancreatic cancer or periampullary cancer. Patients with pancreatic cancer may survive more than 10 years. Only 1 of 31 cases recurred after year 7.