Esophageal Dysmotility Disorders After Laparoscopic Gastric Banding—An Underestimated Complication
Most esophageal motility disorders are related to gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which is the most common pathologic condition of the foregut in the Western world and accounts for about 75% of all esophageal diseases.1 Primary esophageal motility disorders occur in the absence of GERD and present with specific manometric patterns classified as hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter, hypercontracting esophagus (nutcracker esophagus), diffuse esophageal spasms, and achalasia.2,3 The prevalence of obesity significantly increased over the past decades and is recognized by the World Health Organization as a global epidemic.4 Severe obesity is a life-threatening chronic disease with numerous comorbidities such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, obstructive sleep apnea, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, osteoarthritis, and the polycystic ovary syndrome.5,6 Another obesity-associated morbidity is GERD, for which obesity has been identified as an independent risk factor.7–10 Thus, weight loss is usually part of the recommendations for overweight patients with GERD.
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