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The first facial transplantation in 2005 ushered in a new era in reconstructive surgery, offering new possibilities for the repair of severe disfigurements previously limited by conventional techniques. Advances in allograft design, computerized preoperative planning, surgical technique, and postoperative revisions have helped push the boundaries in this new frontier of vascularized composite allotransplantation. Over the past 12 years, 40 of these procedures have been performed across the world, offering the field the opportunity to reflect on current outcomes. Successes achieved in the brief history of facial transplantation have resulted in a new set of obstacles the field must now overcome. In this review, we aim to highlight the achievements, major challenges, and future directions of this rapidly evolving field.